UK2.5

ICP Lab - ICP Lab

Facility Location
City & country
Sheffield, S20 1AH (United Kingdom)
Unit 2 Crown Works Industrial Estate, Rotherham Road, Beighton
Description & contacts of the access provider
Legal name of organisation
PACT - PACT
Infrastructure contact - Primary contact
Dr Kris Milkowski
RICC contact - Secondary contact
Prof. Mohamed Pourkashanian
Facility Availability
Unit of access
Days
Availability per year
70
Expected duration of single experiment:
1 day
Operational or other constraints
Specific risks:
Operational requirements and constraints: The dimensions of the CEML are 6.5 x 2.4 x 3.0 m; it weighs approximately 7.2 tonnes. In addition to liquid argon (from an externally-mounted tank) and mains water requirements, it also requires a mains power supply – 30-40 kVA supplied through an externally mounted 40 kVA transformer, usually from a 3-phase 415 V 63 A supply. The ICP in the mobile lab utilises the following operating conditions and parameters – Ultrasonic nebuliser desolvator temperature 170°C Ultrasonic nebuliser condenser temperature 0°C Generator frequency 27.15 MHz Power RF 1.65 kW Plasma gas flowrate 20 l/min Auxiliary gas flowrate 0.8 l/min Aerosol carrier gas flowrate 0.5 l/min Sample gas flowrate 0.125 l/min Injector tube diameter 1.8 mm Read time 44 s

OVERVIEW OF INTEGRATED FACILITIES

The ICP Lab forms part of UK national Pilot-scale Advanced Capture Technology (PACT) Facilities. It is a mobile laboratory, which houses an Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), for online monitoring of metallic emissions from industrial thermal processes. It is a self-contained unit which can be easily transported to both academic and industrial sites connecting to the process via a 40 m heated line. The facility can perform real‑time, state-of-the-art, continuous, online diagnostics, which is primarily used for quantitative and simultaneous multi-elemental detection of entrained metal aerosols. It simultaneously monitors the concentrations of over 30 elements. The online facility enables process emissions monitoring and monitoring of the impact on downstream processes, process development and optimisation for emissions control, and the development of emissions mitigation strategies.

 

EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS:

  • Emissions analysis from flue and stack gas emissions from industrial such as steel, cement, or refineries, or  power generation applications
  • Emissions analysis from biomass and waste thermal treatment processes
  • Research on impact of metallic emissions on Post Combustion Capture process: solvent degradation, atmospheric emissions, and CO2 purity; process optimisation and/or development of mitigating technologies such as fuel pre-treatment or in-process or post-process capture
  • Research on impact of metallic emissions on Oxyfuel and Pre-Combustion Capture process
  • CCS process optimisation and/or development of mitigating technologies such as fuel pre-treatment or in-process or post-process capture/control

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

The lab is designed around the Spectro Ciros CCD ICP-OES, and equipped with a 40 m heated sampling line. The ICP can simultaneously monitor the concentrations of over 30 elements, including As, Ca, Cd, Hg, K, Na, Pb, Sn, V, Zn, with detection limits as low as 0.0004 mg m-3, and a time resolution of one minute or less. It works by exciting (ionising) atoms from a sample with electrically ionised gas (inductively coupled plasma), which forms emission spectra. The emission of element-specific spectral lines is achieved by inductively coupling radiofrequency energy in an argon gas plasma.

The sample can be taken directly from the stack of the thermal process using an isokinetic sampling probe and a 40 m heated line with a membrane pump. The process stream is sub-sampled again isokinetically into a secondary line which then takes the sample through a condenser to remove moisture and then to the ICP-OES. The sample travels through the ultrasonic nebuliser in order to produce a dry sample of metal aerosols. The desolvator and condenser remove larger particles so the sample can be injected into the custom-built, demountable, 6000°K radial plasma torch.

The inductively coupled argon plasma unit can identify a range of major, minor, trace and ultra-trace volatile cations, including alkali, heavy and radioactive metals and can provide element-specific emission spectra (spectral lines).

  Element

Wavelength (nm)

Line Type

Possible Interferences

Aluminium

309.271

I

 

Aluminium

396.152

I

S, O

Antimony

206.833

I

 

Argon

404.442 and 430.01

I*

 

Arsenic

189.042

I

Mg III, Fe III

Barium

455.404

II

Si III, Ar I

Beryllium

313.042

II

N, Ce, Ta

Boron

249.677

I

TcII, N II

Cadmium

214.438

II

Na III

Cadmium

226.502

II

K II

Cadmium

228.802

I

Sc I

Cadmium

361.051

I

Ni I, Re I, Mo I

Calcium

315.887

II

Co I

Calcium

393.366

II

 

Calcium

396.847

II

W I

Calcium

422.673

I

V I, Al II

Carbon

193.091

I*

S II, Sc I

Carbon

247.856

I*

Fe II,

Chromium

205.552

II

Mo

Chromium

283.563

II

F III, Fe I

Cobalt

230.786

II

Pt

Cobalt

237.862

II

Re II, Sc I

Cobalt

238.892

II

V I, Pb I

Copper

224.7

II

 

Copper

324.754

I

 

Copper

327.396

I

Gd II

Iron

259.941

I

FeII

Iron

373.486

I

 

Lead

261.418 and 283.305

I

Fe II

Lead

405.778

I

Cr I

Lithium

670.78

I

 

Magnesium

279.553

II

Yb

Magnesium

285.213

I

 

Manganese

257.611

II

 

Manganese

403.076

I

Ta I, Th I

Mercury

194.227

II

ScI, Au I

Mercury

253.652

I

Co I, Fe II

Mercury

296.728

I

Hf

Mercury

435.835

I

Fe II

Nickel

221.648

II

Si I

Nickel

231.604

II

O II, Tl I

Nickel

305.082

I

 

Nickel

341.476

I

Co I

Nitrogen

174.525

I*

N II

Oxygen

130.485

I*

 

Potassium

766.491

I

W, Fe II

Silver

328.068 and 338.289

I

 

Sodium

588.995

I

Sc II

Sodium

589.592

I

Mo I

Tin

242.949

I

Rh I

Tin

303.412

I

Th II, Cr I

Vanadium

292.464 and 309.311

II

 

Zinc

202.548

II

 

Zinc

206.191

II

C III

Zinc

213.856

I

Ni II

State of the art, uniqueness, & specific advantages
  • Simultaneously monitor the concentrations of over 30 elements, with detection limits as low as 0.0004 mg m-3, and a time resolution of one minute or less.
  • Mobile facility for deployment and connection on site
Scientific Environment

INTEGRATED PILOT-SCALE FACILITIES

  1. PACT Post Combustion Capture plant for integrated PCC research
  2. PACT 250 kWth PF Air-Oxyfuel Plant
  3. PACT 330 kW CHP Gas Turbine