- Integrated Flue Gas Desulphurisation Plant: The FGD plant is situated at the beginning of the flue/process gas intake. It consists of an 8m packed carbonate wash column for the removal of SOx from flue/process gases down to about 10ppm. An integrated air cooler also controls the flue gas inlet temperature to the subsequent Carbon Capture Plant. Additional shell-in-tube heat exchangers are used for flue gas inlet temperature control. A by-pass is also fitted around the FGD plant directly to the Carbon Capture Plant for flue/process gasses with no SOx.
- The solvent based carbon capture plant: The main plant elements incorporate:
-8 m absorber column
-flue gas wash column for emissions control form the absorber column
-8 m desorber column
-re-boiler for the desorber column with a dedicated electric boiler
-a condenser on top of the desorber column
-cross-exchanger for heat transfer between lean and rich solvent flows + an air cooler for lean solvent inlet temperature control
-solvent tanks for fresh (1.3 m3) and spent (2.6 m3)
The absorber and desorber columns are built in two 4m sections, each with distribution and collection plate and a 3 – 3.5 m packed section to enhance flue gas/solvent interaction with possibility of testing different types of packing materials. Both columns are equipped with ports approximately every 0.5m for temperature and pressure sensors and solvent sampling /injection ports/ trace gas injection. There are also provisions for corrosion coupons and alternative materials test sites.
The flue/process gas inlet volume is controlled by a plant fan with variable speed control, normally set at 210Nm3/hr (70% capacity)
Inlet flue/process gas enters the system through the FGD unit or directly thought to the carbon capture plant via a by-pass. Plant fan controls the intake volume of flue gasses to the plant and drives the gas through the plant. The flue gas then passes up through the absorber column where the carbon capture solution sprayed from above mixes with it. The CO2 in the flue gas is absorbed into the solvent, and is bound by a weak chemical reaction. The treated flue gas, which is mainly nitrogen and water vapour, leaves the top of the absorber, and goes through a clean-up stage (wash column) to remove traces of amine before being released. The rich capture solvent leaves the bottom of the absorber and is pumped through a heat exchanger to the top of the desorber, where the liquid is sprayed downwards. Heat is applied at the bottom of the column in the reboiler. This breaks the chemical bond between the solvent and the CO2. A stream of pure CO2 leaves the top of the desorber and the regenerated lean solution is recycled back to the absorber. Water is removed from the CO2 stream in the condenser and the carbon dioxide leaves the plant.
- Associated analytical facilities:
o Flue gas analysis: dedicated flue gas analysers are installed on plant, monitoring CO2, O2, NOx/NO and SOx concentrations at absorber inlet, absorber outlet and wash column outlet in sampling rotation with each point sampled sequentially for 5 minutes. A high level CO2 analyser is also connected to the desorber outlet and is sampled continuously.
o Emissions monitoring: a GASMET FTIR industrial analyser is also used for plant emissions monitoring with simultaneous analysis of a wide range of compounds including ammonia, formaldehyde, and others
o Liquid sampling: liquid sampling points are available on the plant for sampling lean and rich solvent for monitoring of solvent CO2 loading and solvent component concentrations as well as a sampling point on the wash column for emissions analysis. Lab facilities are available on site for wet chemical analysis.
o Degradation studies: an onsite PERKIN ELMER SQ8 GCMS analyser is available for analysis of both liquid and gaseous samples.
o Other analysis: Other analysis can also be provided through the extensive analytical facilities of the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield who jointly operate the PACT site.
- Pilot scale: the plant is 1t/day CO2 capture plant providing a cost effective and flexible bridge between lab-scale research and large industrial pilot plants
- Widely tuneable inlet flue/process gas capability: SCCP plant forms part of an extended integrated pilot-scale facilities at PACT including gas turbines, PF combustion rigs and synthetic gas mixing facilities The integrated system enables research on any combustion flue gas from turbines and boilers including variety of fuels, biomass/biomass derived fuels, fossil fuels and co-firing. Synthetic gas mixing facilities can be used to modify real flue gasses or to provide purely synthetic streams. This provides an unparalleled and unique capability to test any flue/process gas, to look at various power generation and industrial carbon capture applications and investigate plant/solvent flexibilities.
- Analytical capability: the plant and the wider onsite facilities have extensive analytical capability for monitoring plant performance, solvent and materials characterisation; onsite capability is additionally complemented by research capability of 6 leading UK universities supporting the facilities.
- Integrated system and modelling: the plant is integrated with other highly instrument pilot scale combustion facilities on site (gas turbines, PF rigs, FB Rig…) enabling integrated process research, including looking at process flexibilities and their impact on each stage of the chain
- Expertise: managed and supported by leading UK universities and academic expertise in the area of combustion and carbon capture research, and system modelling.
- Open access: the facilities are open access to both industry and academia, for more cost effective utilisation
- Shared office facilities: the PACT facilities have shared office space both on site as well in PACT administrative offices nearby; these offices are open to visitors accessing the facilities during experimental work.