Keyworth, Nottingham, UK , United Kingdom



HTL (UK1.3)

Hydrothermal Laboratory

The BGS Hydrothermal Laboratory enables the study of chemical reactions between fluids and rocks under conditions found in the top few kilometres of the Earth's crust. In its 40+ years, it has been at the centre of numerous investigations that require well-controlled conditions to study reaction processes under in-situ conditions (i.e. elevated temperatures and pressures). The lab contains a variety of equipment capable of maintaining controlled conditions for timescales of up to many years. Reactions are followed by various means, including: visual observations, monitoring fluid chemical changes over time, and detailed mineralogical analysis of the reaction products. The experimental reaction products are characterised using a wide range of fluid chemical and mineralogical analytical techniques that are available within other dedicated laboratories at the BGS. 

State of the Art, uniqueness & specific advantages

The hydrothermal laboratory is the leading laboratory within Europe for the study of the chemical and mineralogical changes caused by stored CO2 (including other acidic impurities within the CO2), on reservoir rocks (e.g. sandstones, limestones, and basalts) and caprocks (e.g. clays and evaporates), the impact of stored CO2on borehole infrastructure (i.e. borehole steel and cement), and how these contribute to long-term safe storage.


Static (batch) and flow-through equipment are available in the laboratory, with useable volumes ranging from less than one ml to over ten litres, although they have variable pressure and temperature limitations up to 600°C and 1500 bar.

Various arrangements of reactors are available, and include:

• Batch reactors (various pressure/temperature capabilities, with or without fluid sampling facilities).

• High pressure/temperature rocking batch reactors (Dickson-type autoclaves).

• High pressure column reactors for flow-through studies.

• High pressure core flood reactors for flow-through studies.

• Mixed flow reactors for reaction rate studies.

• Fluidised bed reactors for low pressure reaction rate studies.

• High pressure, windowed reactors for optical studies.


More extreme conditions can be simulated with minor modifications.

Most of the equipment in use in the laboratory has been custom designed to suit our specific needs, with much of it manufactured within the BGS workshops. It is possible therefore, to construct specialised equipment to address the needs of specific studies. Many of the experiments conducted are ‘one offs’, and are individually tailored to the needs of the project concerned. The Hydrothermal Laboratory is unique (within the UK at least) in the wide range of techniques and equipment it has available. Reactions are tracked by fluid chemical changes and detailed mineralogical analysis of the reacted solids. Additionally, the lab can derive the fundamental data on reaction processes.

Scientific Environment

The BGS Hydrothermal Laboratory has a long track-record of involvement in many national (NERC, EPSRC, UK government) and international projects, working with academics and operators across Europe, and worldwide (e.g. NDA, SKB, Nagra, JAEA, Statoil). The laboratory regularly attracts researchers from universities (MScs, PhDs and Post Docs) who have found the facilities and supervision very beneficial to their investigations. For example, the laboratory is a key part of the GeoEnergy Research Centre (GERC) a pioneering joint venture co-established by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and the University of Nottingham, and 3 GERC PhD students are currently linked to the lab. The laboratory personnel have a wide-reaching scientific impact, coordinating large-scale projects and publishing widely as a result.

Operating by


British Geological Survey, Natural Environment Research Council
United Kingdom
STORAGE technologies:
Migration, Pressure/injection, Caprock/well integrity, Leakage mitigation/remediation, Reactivity/mineralisation, Leakage
UTILISATION technologies:
CO2 Conversion to Solid Carbonates
Research Fields:
Chemistry/Geochemistry, Physical processes, Thermodynamics
Facility's fact sheet

Location & Contacts

Keyworth, Nottingham, UK , United Kingdom
Andrew Kilpatrick
RICC Contacts - Secondary contact
Simon Gregory

Facility Availability

Unit of access (UA)
Availability per year (in UA)
Min 1 month
Duration of a typical access (average) and number of external users expected for that access
1 month typical duration of single experiment

Quality Control / Quality Assurance (QA)

Activities / tests / data are
Accredited To Standard: nd
Institution QA Webpages

Operational or other constraints

Specific risks:
All risks associated with operating laboratory equipment are covered in the HTL working protocols and associated risk assessments which are provided to laboratory users.
Legal issues

CCUS Projects

EU-Funded CCUS Projects
ENOS (Enabling Onshore CO2 Storage in Europe)
ENOS(Enabling Onshore CO2 Storage in Europe)
SECURe (Subsurface Evaluation of CCS and Unconventional Risks)
Other CCUS Projects
CRIUS (Carbon Research Into Underground Storage) (NERC funded)
GWatt (Geothermal Power Generated from UK Granites)

Selected Publications

British Geological Survey Internal Report, CR/15/103. 65pp. (2015)
Results of laboratory experiments to assess the role of impurities and Fe in CO2 mineral trapping and water chemistry of storage aquifers
Bateman, K, Selby, L, Rushton J C, and Wagner D.
Applied Energy, 208, pp.1389-1419 (2017)
A review of developments in carbon dioxide storage
Aminu, M.D., Nabavi, S.A., Rochelle, C.A. and Manovic, V.