Kolbjørn Heies vei 1D. Trondheim, Norway





CO2MIX - VLE (NO2.3)


Installation 1: Phase equilibrium setup

The CO2Mix phase equilibrium facility is specifically designed for highly accurate phase equilibrium measurements. An analytical technique is used, where the composition of all fluid phases present in the cell at equilibrium is measured. The facility is primarily designed for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) using the static analytic method, but it has also been used to measure phase equilibria with solids and can to some degree be used for synthetic measurements as well. The pressure and temperature range of the setup are from -60 to 150°C and from 3 to 200 bar, respectively. Material selections and ventilation are adapted to the most relevant impurities in CCS, which could include toxic, moderately corrosive as well as explosive impurities. The fluid phases are sampled and injected directly into a gas chromatograph (GC) for chemical analysis. The test cell has several injection valves connected to precise syringe pumps, such that the total composition can be varied during the experimental series, e.g. to adjust the liquid level during measurements on a binary system to avoid having to refill the cell. The test cell consists of a sapphire tube between two titanium flanges, and temperature control is provided by thermostatic baths. Visual access is possible to the cell contents during experiments using a borescope. Temperature, pressure, and composition measurements are calibrated using traceable standards.

Installation 2: Setup for accurate gravimetric preparation of CO2-rich mixtures

Adjacent to the phase equilibrium setup there is a setup for gravimetric preparation of gas mixtures. It is used to prepare mixtures for calibration of the phase equilibrium setup, but could also be used independently to prepare gases for other types of measurements. A heated gas cylinder roller is also available to ensure uniform composition. Mixtures are prepared in 10 l gas cylinders.

State of the Art, uniqueness & specific advantages

Installations 1 and 2 are both extremely accurate. The former has delivered phase equilibrium measurements with unsurpassed accuracy, while the latter has an accuracy down to below 10 ppm, basically limited by adsorption in the gas cylinders and purity of the source gases

Scientific Environment

Highly accurate phase equilibrium measurements and preparation of calibration gas mixtures involving CO2 and impurities typically found in CCS. For each new system to be studied, composition measurements used in the VLE setup should be calibrated with a set of calibration gas mixtures. The facility is located in the thermal laboratories of NTNU/SINTEF with its available infrastructures and services and directly adjacent to the offices of leading scientists in the field of SINTEF and NTNU.

Operating by

SINTEF Energy Research

SINTEF Energy Research
CAPTURE technologies:
Solvents, Systems, Cryogenic
STORAGE technologies:
Pressure/injection, Migration, Caprock/well integrity, Static modelling, Dynamic modelling
TRANSPORT technologies:
Security/troubleshooting, Fluid characterisation, Flow Characterisation, CO2 pipeline transport and integrity, Shipping of CO2
UTILISATION technologies:
Smart integrations with carbon capture and re-use into valuable products, he importance of phase equilibria is dependent on the individual characteristics of the process
Research Fields:
Chemistry/Geochemistry, Modelling, Physical processes, Thermodynamics
Facility's fact sheet

Location & Contacts

Kolbjørn Heies vei 1D. Trondheim, Norway
Chiara Caccamo
RICC Contacts - Secondary contact
Yessica Arellano

Facility Availability

Unit of access (UA)
Availability per year (in UA)
6 months
Duration of a typical access (average) and number of external users expected for that access
4-6 months. Minimum 1 month. Short access has to be fully supervised. 1 operator needed. Overlap in principle possible between different users when using Installation 2 to prepare experiments in Installation 1.

Quality Control / Quality Assurance (QA)

Activities / tests / data are
Controlled: ISO 9001, , ISO 14001 and ISO 45001

Operational or other constraints

Specific risks:
Risk is dependent on mixtures and test conditions, but it is minimized by appropriate measures according to SINTEF's HSE system. For particularly demanding measurements, developing appropriate procedures and / or installation of physical safety installation may increase the preparation time and/or costs of the experiments.
Legal issues
Access to the labs of SINTEF Energy Research is dependent on compliance to all relevant procedures and policies of the institute relating to HSE and protection of the intellectual property. Independent use of facilities will be dependent on individual approval as an operator by the SINTEF Energy Research following training.

CCUS Projects

EU-Funded CCUS Projects
Other CCUS Projects
Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME)
National Fund CZ09
Centre for environmentally-friendly research (FME)
H2020 / Green deal
StoRIES, Storage Research Infrastructure Eco-System

Selected Publications

Fluid Phase Equilib., 509 (2020) 112444. doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2019.112444 (2020)
Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide plus nitrogen plus methane (CO2 + N2 + CH4) system: Measurements of vapor-liquid equilibrium data at temperatures from 223 to 298 K and verification of EOS-CG-2019 equation of state
S. Ottøy, T. Neumann, H.G.J. Stang, J.P. Jakobsen, A. Austegard, S.W. Løvseth
Fluid Phase Equilib., vol 466, pp. 48-78, doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2018.02.009 (2018)
Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide plus argon (CO2 + Ar) system: An improved reference mixture model and measurements of vapor-liquid, vapor-solid, liquid-solid and vapor-liquid-solid phase equilibrium data at the temperatures 213–299 K and pressures up to 16 MPa
S.W. Løvseth, Austegard, Westman, Stang, Herrig, Neumann, Span
Fluid Phase Equilib., vol 473, pp. 37-49, doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2018.05.006 (2018)
Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (CO2 + CO) system at the temperatures 253, 273, 283 and 298 K and pressures up to 13 MPa
S.F. Westman, A. Austegard, H.G.J. Stang, S.W. Løvseth
Fluid Phase Equilib., vol. 462, pp. 44-58, doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2018.01.011 (2018)
liquid equilibrium of the carbon dioxide/methane mixture at three isotherms
E. Petropoulou, E. Voutsas, S.F. Westman, A. Austegard, H.G.J. Stang, S.W. Løvseth
Fluid Phase Equilib., vol 421, pp. 67-87, doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2016.04.002 (2016)
Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the carbon dioxide and oxygen (CO2 + O2) system at the temperatures 218, 233, 253, 273, 288 and 298 K and pressures up to 14 MPa
S. F. Westman, H. G. J. Stang, S. W. Løvseth, A. Austegard, Snustad, Ertesvåg
Fluid Phase Equilibria, vol 409, pp 207–241 doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2015.09.034 (2016)
Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the carbon dioxide and nitrogen (CO2+N2) system at the temperatures 223, 270, 298 and 303 K and pressures up to 18 MPa
S. F. Westman, H. G. J. Stang, S. W. Løvseth, A. Austegard, S.Ø. Størset, Ertesvåg
Energy Procedia, vol 37, pp 2897-2903 doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.175 (2013)
Accurate measurements of CO2-rich mixture phase equilibria relevant for CCS transport and conditioning
H.G. J. Stang, S. W. Løvseth, S. Ø. Størset, B. Malvik, H. Rekstad